Treatment for kidney stones depends on the size and type of the stone and the symptoms caused by it. In case of small stones less than 5mm, medication and simple changes in lifestyle are usually enough to treat, but surgeries and extensive treatments are required if symptoms are severe or if there are complications like obstruction because of stone.
Investigations for the diagnosis Kidney stones:
Based on the examination findings, tests that can be done to diagnose the condition are
- X-ray KUB view is generally taken to look for stones in kidneys, ureter and bladder
- CT abdomen scan is done to get the details of the stone
- Random 24 hour urinary profile
- Intravenous Urogram(IVU) or Intravenous Pyelogram(IVP), if required
Treatment options available for kidney stones:
Small stones with less symptoms
- Proper hydration: Drinking around 3-4 liters of water a day will regulate the urinary system and can effectively eliminate small stones. Drinking more amount of fluids, usually water, is one of the commonest way to flush out small kidney stones.
- Pain relievers: There might be a considerable amount of pain and discomfort associated with passing the stone through urine. You can take painkillers like Ibuprofen, Naproxen sodium or acetaminophen.
- Medical therapy: In order to eliminate the kidney stone medication like alpha blocker helps in passing the kidney stone with least pain and more quickly. They relax the muscles in the ureter and help to pass the stone down easily.
Large stones with severe symptoms
- ESWL to break up stones:This procedure is called extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). ESWL uses the sound waves to create vibrations which breaks the stones in smaller pieces. This procedure can cause mild pain and discomfort.
- Surgical removal of stones: Surgical removal of stones is done with the help of a procedure called nephrolithotomy. It uses small telescopes and other instruments which are inserted in your back through a small incision. It is generally done in case of large stones and when ESWL fails.
What are the complications seen in kidney stone formation?
Stones inside the kidney may cause damage which leads to chronic kidney disease and renal failure ultimately. So it’s important to pay attention to the size of stone and type of stone and take expert opinion to prevent complications.
-Dr.Bhavani Sagar Surampally