Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation owing

to loss of follicular activity of the ovaries. Lack of menses for 12 months period is called menopause in a woman in the age of menopause. “Menopause” is derived from the Latin word “meno” for month  and “pausia” meaning halt. By this, a woman’s life undergoes a transition from the reproductive to the non-reproductive stage.

This transition takes place naturally (spontaneously) at the average age 51, which chronologically begins before menopause and does not end until at least one year after the event. However, in societies with controlled fertility, women complete the reproductive phases of their lives well before menopause.

Other type of menopause are:

Premature menopause: Menopause that occurs in women before 40 years of age.

Induced Menopause: Cessation of menstruation followed by bilateral oophorectomy (surgical menopause), or by any other surgeries  which can cause menopause

Perimenopause : The time period where a woman passes from the reproductive stage of life to the menopause. May starts about 8 years before menopause.

Early symptoms: Hot flashes, Insomnia, mood disturbances, irritability.

Intermediate physical changes:  Vaginal atrophy, skin atrophy, stress urinary incontinence.

Late diseases: Osteoporosis, Cardiovascular diseases, Dementia, Cancer.


  1. Understand menopause
  2. Stop smoking
  3. Have a nutritionally sound diet
  4. Achieve and maintain healthy weight
  5. Reduce stress
  6. Avoid excess alcohol
  7. Say no to drugs and unsafe sex
  8. Hormone Replacement Therapy: hormonal replacement therapy is given by gynecologists to few women after carefully weighing the risks and benefits.


  • Relief of severe menopausal symptoms
  • Contraindications:
  • Existing breast cancer
  • Existing endometrial cancer
  • Venous thromboembolism
  • Acute liver disease
  1. Exercise regularly
  •  Benefits of regular exercise:

                    – Decreases hot flashes

                    – Improves mood and sleep
                    – Decreases/maintains weight
                    – Supports joint/muscle flexibility
                    – Prevents bone loss
                    – Decreases risk of many other diseases



Dr. Y.Alekhya.


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