Kidney stones are the most common urinary tract disease. They produce no symptoms, until it moves around the kidney or passes into the ureter or urinary bladder.

Kidney stones(Nephrolithiasis) form more often due to the accumulation of minerals and other substances in the inner lining of kidneys. It’s a major economic and health burden worldwide. Kidney stones can either pass unnoticed into urine if size is too small or sometimes it may grow up to the size of a golf ball.

Kidney stones usually consist of calcium Oxalates(80%) but also can be in form of other compounds like citrates, Phosphates, uric acid. Kidney stone formations are considered as a major health concern if associated with other medical conditions like chronic kidney disease, bone loss  and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome.

Some of the more commonly seen Symptoms are:

a)Lower abdomen pain- People suffering from kidney stones often suffer from localized back pain in the early stages. The pain starts at the back, just near the kidney area. As the condition worsens, the pain might radiate to the groin, lower abdomen and lower back area.

b)Vomiting or sensation of vomiting- It can become so severe that can lead to vomiting. It can lead to vomitings causing dehydration.

c)Blood or pus in the urine- The color of urine might vary from brown, pink to slightly red with stains of blood. As the kidney stones increase in size they blocks the urethra, there by causing damage to epithelium causing passage of blood in urine. This condition is referred to as hematuria.

  1. d) Burning sensation while passing urine- The most common sign of kidney stones is a sudden urge to urinate. When an individual does try to urinate, the amount of urine excreted is less than normal urine output. In case of a normal volume of urine, if an individual experiences extreme pain, this can be due to infection.

e)The decrease in the passage of urine output- Because of pain, there will be a reflux decrease in the amount of urine.

g)Fever and chills- if kidney stones are associated with infection of urinary tract.

Kidney stones formation:

The most common cause of kidney stones formation is due to decreased intake of water which is less than 8 to 10 glasses of water. In dehydration, dilution of uric acid is not possible and it gets concentrated causing increased acidic content in the urine and kidneys. Such excessive acidic content leads to the formation of kidney stones.

The risk factors which causes kidney stones:

These stone formation in kidneys are more commonly seen in males compared to females.

  • The age group which gets affected most is between 40 to 60 yrs aged people.
  • Often dehydration from reduced fluid intake, over a time can leads to the formation of kidney stones.
  • Presence of a family history of kidney stones and  mostly associated with first degree relatives
  • Past history of stone formation if present can again cause Kidney stones
  • Increased in people having a sedentary lifestyle or suffering from bed bound illness
  • Taking more of high protein and low fiber diet will increase the chances of formation
  • In some cases presence of  Cystinuria increase the formation of kidney stones
  • Other medical conditions which are associated with stone formations are seen in renal tubular acidosis, recurrent urinary tract infection, hyperparathyroidism.
  • People who overuse vitamin C has high risks of kidney stone formation

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult a general physician or urologist to get answers to your questions…!

By,

Dr.Bhavani Sagar Surampally

 

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